‘Coke is made by pyrolysis of hard coal at high temperature – over 1000 °C – without access of air. Hard coal is used for coke production if possible with low sulphur content and adequate properties for thermal processing. By-products of the coking process include: ammonia, crude tar, crude benzol, coke-oven gas and sulphur.
Coke is formed also during oil processing, which is not suitable for the production of pig iron due to its properties.
Coke emerged also in a natural way, particularly there where coal strata came to contact with hot magma during the geological development.
coal handling (coal discharge, sampling, storage in bins)
charge preparation (batching, grinding, mixing, moistening and sampling)
high-temperature carbonisation (coal charging, coking, coke extruding, coke cooling)
coke handling (crushing, screening, sampling and loading onto railway carriages)
cooling and cleaning of crude coke-oven gas and obtaining secondary chemical products
What is coke used for
Coke is used as fuel and a reducing agent in a blast furnace in the production of pig iron or in cupola furnaces in the production of cast iron, for production of insulation materials and for special metallurgy. In addition, as fuel for heating and a technological raw material in some chemical and food productions.
Coke from coal is silverly grey, hard and porous. Its calorific value ranges by type from 25 to 30 MJ/kg.
Coke in the universe
Due to its porosity, coke is extraordinarily good thermal insulant. It is also used in the American cosmic programme as one of the components of the braking shield of cosmic vessels. Within the Apollo programme, this material reached the orbit of the Moon in the thermal shield of the command section of the lunar ship. Coke is taken into account also in the Orion spaceship, which is intended for the return of people to the Moon and conquest of the Mars.